Authors: 
Ayan Biswas, David Thompson, Wenbin He, Qi Deng, Chun-Ming Chen, Han-Wei Shen, Raghu Machiraju, Anand Rangarajan
Abstract: 
Although vortex analysis and detection have been extensively in- vestigated in the past, none of the existing techniques are able to provide fully robust and reliable identification results. Local vortex detection methods are popular as they are efficient and easy to im- plement, and produce binary outputs based on a user-specified, hard threshold. However, vortices are global features, which present challenges for local detectors. On the other hand, global detec- tors are computationally intensive and require considerable user in- put. In this work, we propose a consensus-based uncertainty model and introduce spatial proximity to enhance vortex detection results obtained using point-based methods. We use four existing local vortex detectors and convert their outputs into fuzzy possibility val- ues using a sigmoid-based soft-thresholding approach. We apply a majority voting scheme that enables us to identify candidate vortex regions with a higher degree of confidence. Then, we introduce spa- tial proximity- based analysis to discern the final vortical regions. Thus, by using spatial proximity coupled with fuzzy inputs, we pro- pose a novel uncertainty analysis approach for vortex detection. We use expert’s input to better estimate the system parameters and re- sults from two real-world data sets demonstrate the efficacy of our method.